Scoliosis Biomechanics

Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is both the predominant spine deformity and the predominant form of scoliosis, affecting approximately 80% to 85% of all scoliosis patients. The reported prevalence typically ranges from 1%-3%. In 2010 and 2011 alone, US hospitals discharged more than 12,000 adolescent patients with idiopathic scoliosis, costing the nation more than $1.8 billion. As scoliosis affects some of the youngest orthopaedic patients who require permanency in their treatments, the instrumented-fusion should provide stabilization for many decades of life.


Current Research

At the JVL Research Center at Orthopaedic Institute for Children, biomechanical engineers and pediatric orthopaedic surgeons collaborate regularly to address clinical and surgical problems in the lab.

Our team has developed several in vitro models to simulate the surgical procedures that are performed to allow surgeons to compare the efficacy of various corrective maneuvers in the laboratory.

These in vitro models offer the advantage of testing surgical procedures pre-operatively.

The research projects focusing on scoliosis and related surgeries have been published in major international journals. 



  1. Borkowski SL, Sangiorgio SN, Bowen RE, Scaduto AA, He B, Bauer KL, Ebramzadeh E. Strength of Thoracic Spine Under Simulated Direct Vertebral Rotation: A Biomechanical Study. Spine Deform. 2016 Mar;4(2):85-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jspd.2015.09.044. Epub 2016 Feb 2. PubMed PMID: 27927550.
  2. Borkowski SL, Tamrazian E, Bowen RE, Scaduto AA, Ebramzadeh E, Sangiorgio SN. Challenging the Conventional Standard for Thoracic Spine Range of Motion: A Systematic Review. JBJS Rev. 2016 Apr 5;4(4):e51-e511. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.O.00048. Review. PubMed PMID: 27487429.
  3. Knutsen AR, Borkowski SL, Ebramzadeh E, Flanagan CL, Hollister SJ, Sangiorgio SN. Static and dynamic fatigue behavior of topology designed and conventional 3D printed bioresorbable PCL cervical interbody fusion devices. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2015 Sep;49:332-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2015.05.015. Epub 2015 May 27. PubMed PMID: 26072198; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4490041.
  4. Tan TL, Borkowski SL, Sangiorgio SN, Campbell PA, Ebramzadeh E. Imaging Criteria for the Quantification of Disc Degeneration: A Systematic Review. JBJS Rev. 2015 Feb 10;3(2). pii: 01874474-201503020-00004. doi: 10.2106/JBJS.RVW.N.00056. PubMed PMID: 27490747.
  5. Borkowski SL, Sangiorgio SN, Bowen RE, Scaduto AA, Kwak J, Ebramzadeh E. Flexibility of thoracic spines under simultaneous multi-planar loading. Eur Spine J. 2017 Jan;26(1):173-180. doi: 10.1007/s00586-014-3499-0. Epub 2014 Aug 5. PubMed PMID: 25091262.
  6. Borkowski SL, Ebramzadeh E, Sangiorgio SN, Masri SF. Application of the restoring force method for identification of lumbar spine flexion-extension motion under flexion-extension moment. J Biomech Eng. 2014 Apr;136(4). doi: 10.1115/1.4026893. PubMed PMID: 24556960.
  7. Sangiorgio SN, Borkowski SL, Bowen RE, Scaduto AA, Frost NL, Ebramzadeh E. Quantification of Increase in Three-dimensional Spine Flexibility Following Sequential Ponte Osteotomies in a Cadaveric Model. Spine Deform. 2013 May;1(3):171-178. doi: 10.1016/j.jspd.2013.01.006. Epub 2013 Jun 6. PubMed PMID: 27927289.