Clubfoot Outcome & Biomechanics

The JVL Researchers in close collaboration with orthopaedic surgeons, have conducted studies on the treatment and outcome of idiopathic clubfoot. An IRB approved database of more than 300 infants treated at OIC has been established, and used to study all aspects of clubfoot treatment. Some of the questions recently addressed:

  • How early should an infant with clubfoot begin treatment?
  • At what age should an infant with clubfoot be expected to walk?
  • Is there a correlation between severity of clubfoot and gender?

Current Research

Working with orthopaedic surgeons, JVL researchers designed a study to compare the corrective potential of among three surgical procedures commonly conducted in clubfoot patients who experience a relapse after 2 ½ years of age. Optical motion tracking was used to measure forefoot and hindfoot motions as a function of tension applied via the anterior tibialis.



  1. Knutsen, A.R., Avoian, T., Sangiorgio, S.N., Borkowski, S.L., Ebramzadeh, E., Zionts, L.E.: “Quantifying Anterior Tibialis Tendon Transfer Methods for Clubfoot Correction.” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. 2015;473 (5):1737-43.
  2. Zionts, L.E., Packer, D., Cooper, S., Ebramzadeh, E., Sangiorgio, S.N.: “Walking Age in Infants with Idiopathic Clubfoot Treated Using the Ponseti Method,” 2014, J Bone and Joint Surgery. 2014;96:e164(1-6). 
  3. Zionts, L.E., Sangiorgio, S.N., Cooper, S.D., Ebramzadeh, E.: “Does Clubfoot Treatment Need to Begin As Soon As Possible?” J Pediatr Orthop. 2015 Apr 30.
  4. Zionts, L.E., Jew, M.H., Ebramzadeh, E., Sangiorgio, S.N.,”The Influence of Sex and Laterality on Clubfoot Severity,” J Pediatr Orthop. 2016
  5. Zionts, LE, Sangiorgio, SN, Ebramzadeh, E, Morcuende, JA: “The Current Management of Idiopathic Clubfoot Revisited: Results of a Survey of the POSNA Membership.” J Pediatr Orthop. 2012; Jul; 32(5):515-20.
  6. Zionts, LE., Frost, N., Kim, R., Ebramzadeh, E., Sangiorgio, SN,: Treatment of idiopathic clubfoot: Experience with the Mitchell-Ponseti Brace.” J Pediatr Orthop. 2012; 32(7):706-13.