This is a curvature of the spine greater than 10 degrees. Diagnosis is made with radiographs of the spine to evaluate the amount of curving. Treatments include observation if there is mild curvature of less than 20–30 degrees, application of a brace for moderate curvature of 30–40 degrees, and a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation for severe curves of greater than 50 degrees.
This is when the ball at the top of the thighbone is not stable within the hip socket and the ligaments of the hip joint may also be stretched and loose. Diagnosis is made based on ultrasounds for infants, radiographs and possible CT for older children. Treatment depends on age. For infants, a pavlik harness can be applied to help improve the contact between the thigh and hip bones. It allows contact between the thigh and hip bones and helps strengthen the muscles and ligaments of the hip while it is developing. The older child may need a hip spica cast and possibly surgery to correct the position of the hip bone in the joint.
Noted when the arch of the foot disappears upon standing. The arch reappears while your child stands on their tip toes or the toes are hyperextended. Typically, flatfeet do not cause any pain or discomfort. This condition also does not cause any disabilities or limitations in activities he or she would like to participate in.
Knock knees is an angular deformity of the legs in which the knees touch each other but the ankles are spread apart. This is also known as “genu valgum.” Typically during childhood, especially during early grade school, knock knees is a normal part of growth and is called “physiologic genu valgum.”