Skeletal deformities associated with NF1, which include:
Congenital Tibial Deformity or Fracture
Anterolateral tibial bowing occurs at birth and is characterized by the affected leg bowed forward and usually shortened. By age two the bowed tibia fractures spontaneously and does not heal, which forms a pseudoarthrosis (non-union). Bracing is used to prevent the congenital tibial deformity from fracturing. Surgery is needed to treat congenital tibial fractures. These fractures have low healing potential, and multiple surgeries may be necessary.
Limb Length Discrepancy
A discrepancy is noted when there is a difference in the length of either the arms or legs. Arm length discrepancies usually do not cause any significant problems in function. Most functional problems are associated with significant leg length discrepancies. Limb length discrepancy is usually mild and is actually quite common in the population. Mild leg length discrepancy is a normal variant that does not require any surgical treatment, but shoe lifts may be prescribed to help alleviate some symptoms. Larger differences may require surgical treatment such as leg shortening or lengthening using an external fixator.
This is a curvature of the spine greater than 10 degrees. Diagnosis is made with radiographs of the spine to evaluate the amount of curving. Treatments include observation if there is mild curvature of less than 20–30 degrees, application of a brace for moderate curvature of 30–40 degrees, and a posterior spinal fusion with instrumentation for severe curves of greater than 50 degrees.